Which taxes qualify for the protective claim? Estate taxes, income taxes, even gift taxes. In fact, any time you feel you overpaid a tax you can file for a refund, if you have a good reason.
The legality and constitutionality of same-sex marriage has not been far from the news or the estate planning of some who are affected. This particularly is true after the ruling of U.S. District Court Judge Barbara S. Jones in Windsor v. United States.
When it comes to "same-sex" estate planning, there are significant tax burdens at play. However, according to a recent article in MarketWatch titled "Ruling poses tax issues for same-sex couples," that doesn't mean that you have to consider the protective claim.
So, what is a protective claim? Any form of taxation is subject to a sort of protective claim. All that is required is that you pay your tax and then file an amended return. It should be filed on the basis of what your return should be if current litigation is decided in that favor.
Still, the stakes are simply that much higher in this case with the many tax benefits that marriage as a federally-recognized institution brings. Some may consider it premature, but, in the case of either income taxes or estate taxes, taking the defensive position of a protective claim may be worth it. At the very least, there's nothing to lose.
Reference: MarketWatch (July 10, 2012) "Ruling poses tax issues for same-sex couples"